How Combat Jets Refuel in Midair

Table of contents
1) how air combat Jets Refuel in midair
2) KC-135 Stratotanker jet
3) how does Airbus Fuel System Works?
4) Temperatures for jets

 How Combat Jets Refuel in Midair

How Combat Jets Refuel in Midair


 Fighter jets will perform what look like impossible maneuvers, high on top of the clouds. however one among the foremost wonderful moves is however it will refuel in point. 

Aerial supplying is the process of transferring fuel from one craft, the tanker, to a different craft, the receiver. It permits the Air Force to conserve fuel by not forcing fighters to hunt out and land on a runway inthe middle of a mission.

Cost of Jet

 it is not that straight forward. If you're thinking that threading a needle is difficult, imagine doing it whereas piloting a $150 million fighter jet. 

Safety Measurements

 This is often allin the name of safety, obviously, as a result of it's aninherently dangerous activity once you get 2 airplanest about to one another. that is Major microphone Vilven.

How Combat Jets Refuel in Midair

KC-135 Stratotanker

 He evaluates pilots UN agency have trained on the KC-135 Stratotanker.  Before we tend to even come out, there's anyplace from 2 to four hours of mission coming up with and preparation that get into what we're actually attending to do.

 Emily Kubusek: It is parmanent that our pilots area unit safe, and that they area unit effective, and that they recognize specifically the procedures that they are doing before they really execute.

Emily Kubusek

  Major Emily Kubusek may be a KC-135 teacher coaching ensuing generation of pilots.

 a number of the supplying provision rely on what kind ofaircraft area unit being flown.

The U.S. Air Force

  The U.S. Air Force uses a flying boom system, wherever an extended, skinny tubeextends from the tanker into a receptacle onthe receiving craft.

 To begin, the pilots considerwhat they decision altitude block, that area unit like very little roads within the sky, for good arranged outat totally different altitudes everywhere the U.S. The pilots agree on a place to begin, associate degree finish purpose, and a meetup time.

Height of Plane During Midair Refuel

 The tanker usually arrives regarding quarter-hour before the receiver, UN agency can arrive regarding 1000 feet below the tanker. however they will shut that distance pretty quickly.

  They are flying what we tend to decision a track pattern, wherethey're simply flying during a circle, awaiting the receiver to point out up. each the tanker and also the receiver can continue down the track.

 They seem to be a mile behind thet anker, one thousand feet below, and so they typically begin to shut in.

Altitude During Midair Refuel

 They decrease that altitude separation till they get to the aft position, that is regarding fifty feetbehind the craft, at that purpose the boom operator, they're directive thereceiver at that time to shut sure the contact.

 That is once the boom operator can take over and can tell them are available,go out, go faster, go slower, up or down, till they'rein the sweet spot, and so that boom operator will makethe contact therewith boom. 

Air Jets For Midair Refuel

The boom is what can run the fuel from the tanker to the receiver. Jets just like the F-22 and F-35 have boom receptacles for receiving the fuel from the boom.

  Usually,while the boom operator is within the back doing all of the diligence, the pilots area unit up front.

 One person is activelyflying or actively observation the autopilot, and thenthe second pilot is typically off-loading the gas wheneverything aligns properly. 

Operators

The boomoperator has full management over the boom, and might extendand retract it PRN. The operator will disconnectthe boom once provision is complete, however if the receiving plane moves off target, the system triggers anautomatic disconnect.

Weather during Midair Refuel

 This is often terribly useful,because inclement weather, turbulence, unexpected turns, and traffic will all build it difficult to keep connected. generally the planes will have to separate and rejoin within the middle of the method.

 Once the supplying isfinished, the receiving plane drops 1000 feet, the coordinates with the tanker for departure from the formation.

Methodology

 The planes will then continueon their several missions. a rather easier aerial supplying methodology is that the drogue probe, used on most of the Navy and Marine fighter jets.

 A drogue hosepipe witha parachute on the top comes out of the tanker,while the receiver extends a skinny probe into theparachute, sort of a bullseye.

 despite the strategy, aerial supplying may be a difficult and dangerous maneuver that needs a team ofhighly trained consultants to trust and believe oneanother to execute it properly.

How does Airbus Fuel System Works?

How does Airbus Fuel System Works?


  Airbus a 320 simulator at the TFC flight training center here in Essen Germany. This is video number 3 out of 10 Airbus.
 introduction posts and today, I'll be giving you a basic explanation of the Airbus A320 fuel system.

Air Traffic Control Radio

 So let's get started (Air Traffic Control Radio) (Up beat electronic music playing) The A320 fuel system consists of the fuel tanks, controls the distribution of the fuel during refueling.

Lubrication System

 supplies fuel to the engines and apu cools the oil for the integrated drive generator lubrication system keeps fuel in the outer wing for wing bending and flutter relief and supplies information on the Ecam and cockpit indication.
 Within the cockpit we have all the related fuel switches on the overhead panel and the Ecam display showing the fuel panel after pressing the fuel button on the Ecam control panel.

Ecam

 Other than that the Ecam will automatically display the fuel page in case of a system failure or warning.
 Outside of the cockpit you can find a refueling panel on the lower part of the fuselage, below the right-hand wing and the refueling coupling in the midsection on either side of the wings.

Tanks for Refuel

 The fuel is stored in three tanks: the left and right wing tank and the Center tank The wing tanks are further divided into a inner tank and a outer tank.

 The total usable fuel capacity is 23.858 liters or 6302 US gallons on the Airbus A320 model.
 Okay, let's look at the Ecam fuel display. Starting at the bottom we have the FOB, the fuel on board Moving up we have a scheme of the wing tanks, each showing the current fuel quantity.

Temperature of Fueling Midair

 The fuel temperature Except for the one in the center tank, which isn't exposed as much to the outside air temperatures compared to the wing tanks.
 Then you have the fuel pumps, the crossfeed valve and the fuel lines Towards the engines including the low pressure fuel valve.
 Number one and two represent the engine one and two plus the fuel each engine has used since engine starts and the sum of that. Now as you can see there is a barrier between the outer wing tank and the inner wing tank.

Size of Fuel Tanks

 That's there for a specific reason, the fuel systems will primarily empty or use the center tanks first then the inner tanks and as soon as the inner tanks reach a fuel level of 750 kilograms, a transfer valve will open.

let in the outer wing tank fuel flow into the inner tank by gravity.
The reason therefore is to reduce wing bending and control wing flutter during flight.

 Now, you can see that each side is isolated from each other, but if there were to be any abnormality, like an engine failure for example, a fuel imbalance could create a further problem. 

That's where the cross feed valve comes to play. Normally the valve is closed, but setting it into the open position, fuel then can be transferred from the heavier side to the lighter side using the fuel pumps accordingly.

Types of Fuel Pumps

 There is a total of six identical fuel pumps: two in each in a wing tank and two in the center tank. When the wing tank pumps are selected on, they operate continuously, providing necessary pressure to the fuel line. 

Working of Fuel pumps

The engines and are manually switched off after the engines are shut down and reaching the parking position.
 To make the system redundant, suction valves are installed in each wing tank. So in case both fuel pumps fail in a wing tank the engines can use suction pressure to extract the remaining fuel from the tank.
 But there aren't any suction valves installed in the center tank.
 Therefore in case both center tank pumps should fail, the remaining fuel is not available from the center tank Also, the fuel is limited by temperature.

 The minimum temperature for jet A-1 fuel is -43 °C and a maximum of +45 °C. To counteract from fuel freezing up in cruise, Airbus has installed a fuel-to-oil heat exchanger.
 During flight, the cold fuel cools the hot oil of the integrated drive generator and at the same time the oil warms up the fuel to prevent it from freezing.

Conclusion

 That's it for today I hope you enjoyed the basic introduction video of the fuel system on the Airbus A320 Thank you very much for the support by TFC providing me with this great flight simulator and see you next week. All the best, Your Captain Joe. Electronic outro music playing 

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